Repair Acute and Chronic Joint Diseases
Epitrol (TP7193) in Arthropathies
Transdermal TP7193 is an emerging candidate disease-modifying, first-in-class candidate therapeutic for underserved arthropathies. Clinical efficacy is sustained by preclinical models and preliminary case series in joint diseases - where just symptomatic medications are available - upon limited non-cumulative doses.
Chronic disorder involving movable joints characterized by cell stress and extracellular matrix degradation initiated by micro- and macro-injury that activates maladaptive repair responses including pro-inflammatory pathways of innate immunity. An initial molecular derangement (abnormal joint tissue metabolism) is followed by anatomic/physiologic disarrays characterized by cartilage degradation, bone remodeling, osteophyte formation, joint inflammation and loss of joint function. OA affects hands, knees, hips and spine of millions of people worldwide, prevalence rumps up after the 50th year of age. It is managed by NSAIDS and steroids without reversing the joints damage, while preventive measures may slow down disease progression.
This painful conditions occurs in and around tendons in response to overuse as multifaceted disease marked by decline in tendon function and reduced exercise tolerances, Tendinitis appears earlier in life due to overuse, typically of rotator cuff tendon, epicondyles, patellar tendon, gluteal tendons, Achilles tendon. Chronic tendinosis shows up on aging manifested as increased collagen disarray, microvasculature&sensory nerve innervation, surge of inflammatory mediators, enhanced cell apoptosis, and fat infiltration. Little or no COX-related inflammation is present in the conditions. Thus, traditional treatment modalities aimed at controlling inflammation such as corticosteroid injections and NSAIDS may not be the most effective options.
Professional sportsmen often experience trauma while participating to agonistic games, or during intense training session. Contact sports cause high risk, while lack of warm up or irregular activity could also contribute. Overstretching or tearing the ligaments or muscle result in articular damages, or muscular strains or sprain. The most common articular injuries occur as knee injuries, the Achilles tendon rupture, rotator cuff injury, etc. Rehabilitation methods include rest, cold (or warm) cycles, compression and elevation.
Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis (JIA)
The most chronic rheumatic disease of childhood, JIA has yearly incidence of 2–20 cases/100,000; and prevalence 16-150 cases/100,000. Its prevalence could be underestimated as a survey in W. Australia reported 400 cases/100,000. Moreover, the incidence and prevalence data vary across ethnic groups impacting the distribution of subtypes: oligoarthritis is most common in Europe, polyarticular in other regions. An array of Ab and SME kinase inhibitors have been introduced or tested with limited outcomes.